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About this Research Topic

The relatively strong polar interactions are caused by permanent and localizable asymmetry of electron density in molecules. In liquids, the best known example is water, the polarity of which is responsible for the high SFT. Glass is a typical example of a strongly polar solid surface. Disperse interactions are usually weaker; they result from statistical fluctuations of the electron density distribution in a molecule, which cause temporary charge differences at different locations.

Free Energy in Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience | Frontiers Research Topic

This leads to electrostatic attraction between molecules. Alkanes and some plastics such as polyethylene or polypropylene exclusively form dispersive interactions. This is also the reason for the poor wettability of many plastics by water.

The pre-treatment methods mentioned above essentially increase the polar fraction of SFE and thus make the plastic more similar to water. According to the two-component model, wetting and adhesion are at a maximum if not only the SFE of the solid and the SFT of the liquid agree, but also the respective polar and disperse fractions.

The following illustration shows the wetting and adhesion depending on the polar and disperse fractions. The big hands symbolize polar, the small disperse interactions. Below is an example with non-identical interaction components. Fowkes is the author of the first scientific paper in which the SFT of liquids was split into interaction fractions and the SFE was determined based on these fractions using contact angle measurements.

It is based on Fowkes and uses contact angles of two liquids with known polar and disperse fractions of SFE. Other, less frequently used models interpret the polar and disperse fractions differently from OWRK or do not interpret the SFE and SFT at all in relation to their interaction fractions. The following table gives an overview; details on the models can be found in separate articles of this glossary.

Ink tests are still used to check the wettability of surfaces. The result is interpreted as SFE by users and also by some test ink manufacturers. The method is seemingly obvious: several liquid mixtures with descending SFT are applied to the surface one after the other. The SFT of the first liquid, which forms a non-running film, i.

However, the nature of the interactions is not taken into account. As a consequence, the results of the ink test cannot be transferred to contact with most other liquids.


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In the technical process, the solid therefore often behaves quite differently than was to be expected after the ink test. On nonpolar plastics, water has a much higher contact angle than DIM. The ratio is reversed when the same liquids come into contact with clean glass as a highly polar surface: The water contact angle is considerably smaller than the DIM contact angle. This example shows that the amount of SFT of the liquid alone is not sufficient to establish a relationship between wetting and SFE.

Fowkes, Attractive Forces at Interfaces. In: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 56,12 , P. Jin, F.

Thomsen, T. Skrivanek and T. In: K. Mittal Ed. In: J. Adhesion 2 , P. Owens; R. Sci 13 , P.

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Spontaneity: Free Energy and Temperature

In: Farbe und Lack 77,10 , P. Young, An Essay on the Cohesion of Fluids. Certificate courses for successful and reliable measurements. DSA Inkjet. Your search term. Contact Newsletter Seminars Remote. The energy units will need to be the same in order to solve the equation properly. As with standard heats of formation, the standard free energy of a substance represents the free energy change associated with the formation of the substance from the elements in their most stable forms as they exist under the standard conditions of 1 atm pressure and K.

Standard Gibbs free energies of formation are normally found directly from tables.

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Once the values for all the reactants and products are known, the standard Gibbs free energy change for the reaction can be found. Gibbs Energy of Formation : The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of a compound is the change of Gibbs free energy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of that substance from its component elements, at their standard states. It is also important to remember that the table provides per mole values. These are the conditions under which most reactions are carried out in the laboratory.

The system is usually open to the atmosphere constant pressure and the process is started and ended at room temperature after any heat that has been added or which was liberated by the reaction has dissipated. The importance of the Gibbs function can hardly be over-stated: it determines whether a given chemical change is thermodynamically possible. Thus, if the free energy of the reactants is greater than that of the products, the entropy of the world will increase and the reaction takes place spontaneously.

Conversely, if the free energy of the products exceeds that of the reactants, the reaction will not take place. In a spontaneous change, Gibbs energy always decreases and never increases. Here is an example:.

Gibbs Energy in Reactions

Water below zero degrees Celsius undergoes a decrease in its entropy, but the heat released into the surroundings more than compensates for this so the entropy of the world increases, the free energy of the H 2 O diminishes, and the process proceeds spontaneously. An important consequence of the one-way downward path of the free energy is that once it reaches its minimum possible value, net change comes to a halt. This, of course, represents the state of chemical equilibrium. These relations are summarized as follows:.

In particular, notice that in the above equation the sign of the entropy change determines whether the reaction becomes more or less spontaneous as the temperature is raised. This means that there are four possibilities for the influence that temperature can have on the spontaneity of a process:. An exothermic reaction whose entropy increases will be spontaneous at all temperatures. The freezing of a liquid or the condensation of a gas are the most common examples of this condition. Think of melting and boiling. Substance A always has a greater number of accessible energy states, and is therefore always the preferred form.

The horizontal axis schematically expresses the relative concentrations of reactants and products at any point of the process. Note that the origin corresponds to the composition at which half of the reactants have been converted into products. In contrast, the composition of a chemical reaction system undergoes continual change until the equilibrium state is reached. This does not mean that each mole of pure A will be converted into one mole of pure B. But because free energy can only decrease but never increase, this does not happen.

The composition of the system remains permanently at its equilibrium value. Gibbs free energy measures the useful work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. Just as in mechanics, where potential energy is defined as capacity to do work, similarly different potentials have different meanings. The Gibbs free energy is the maximum amount of non-expansion work that can be extracted from a closed system. Gibbs free energy equation : The Gibbs free energy equation is dependent on pressure.

As such, it is a convenient criterion of spontaneity for processes with constant pressure and temperature. Therefore, Gibbs free energy is most useful for thermochemical processes at constant temperature and pressure.

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