Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications


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In addition, a later work determined that this first metamaterial had a range of frequencies over which the refractive index was predicted to be negative for one direction of propagation see ref [1].


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Other predicted electrodynamic effects were to be investigated in other research. From the conclusions in the above section a left-handed material LHM can be defined. Real values are then derived to denote the value of negative index of refraction, and wave vectors. This means that in practice losses will occur for a given medium used to transmit electromagnetic radiation such as microwave , or infrared frequencies, or visible light — for example.


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In this instance, real values describe either the amplitude or the intensity of a transmitted wave relative to an incident wave, while ignoring the negligible loss values. In the above sections first fabricated metamaterial was constructed with resonating elements , which exhibited one direction of incidence and polarization.

In other words, this structure exhibited left-handed propagation in one dimension. This was discussed in relation to Veselago's seminal work 33 years earlier He predicted that intrinsic to a material, which manifests negative values of effective permittivity and permeability , are several types of reversed physics phenomena. Hence, there was then a critical need for a higher-dimensional LHMs to confirm Veselago's theory, as expected. The confirmation would include reversal of Snell's law index of refraction , along with other reversed phenomena.

In the beginning of the existence of a higher-dimensional structure was reported. It was two-dimensional and demonstrated by both experiment and numerical confirmation.

It was an LHM , a composite constructed of wire strips mounted behind the split-ring resonators SRRs in a periodic configuration. It was created for the express purpose of being suitable for further experiments to produce the effects predicted by Veselago. A theoretical work in published in by Soviet physicist Victor Veselago showed that a refractive index with negative values is possible and that this does not violate the laws of physics. As discussed previously above , the first metamaterial had a range of frequencies over which the refractive index was predicted to be negative for one direction of propagation.

It was reported in May In , a team of researchers constructed a prism composed of metamaterials negative-index metamaterials to experimentally test for negative refractive index. The experiment used a waveguide to help transmit the proper frequency and isolate the material.

This test achieved its goal because it successfully verified a negative index of refraction.

Metamaterials Explained Simply and Visually

The experimental demonstration of negative refractive index was followed by another demonstration, in , of a reversal of Snell's law, or reversed refraction. However, in this experiment negative index of refraction material is in free space from Although the radiated frequency range is about the same, a notable distinction is this experiment is conducted in free space rather than employing waveguides.

Furthering the authenticity of negative refraction, the power flow of a wave transmitted through a dispersive left-handed material was calculated and compared to a dispersive right-handed material. The transmission of an incident field, composed of many frequencies, from an isotropic nondispersive material into an isotropic dispersive media is employed.

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The direction of power flow for both nondispersive and dispersive media is determined by the time-averaged Poynting vector. Negative refraction was shown to be possible for multiple frequency signals by explicit calculation of the Poynting vector in the LHM. In a slab of conventional material with an ordinary refractive index — a right-handed material RHM — the wave front is transmitted away from the source.

In a NIM the wavefront travels toward the source. However, the magnitude and direction of the flow of energy essentially remains the same in both the ordinary material and the NIM. Hence, the sign of the intrinsic impedance is still positive in a NIM. In a passive metamaterial medium this determines a negative real and imaginary part of the refractive index. In Victor Veselago 's paper showed that the opposite directions of EM plane waves and the flow of energy was derived from the individual Maxwell curl equations.

In ordinary optical materials, the curl equation for the electric field show a "right hand rule" for the directions of the electric field E , the magnetic induction B , and wave propagation, which goes in the direction of wave vector k. This means that when permeability is less than zero, e. Furthermore, the relations of vectors E , H , and k form a " left-handed" system — and it was Veselago who coined the term "left-handed" LH material, which is in wide use today He contended that an LH material has a negative refractive index and relied on the steady-state solutions of Maxwell's equations as a center for his argument.

After a year void, when LH materials were finally demonstrated, it could be said that the designation of negative refractive index is unique to LH systems; even when compared to photonic crystals. Photonic crystals, like many other known systems, can exhibit unusual propagation behavior such as reversal of phase and group velocities. But, negative refraction does not occur in these systems, and not yet realistically in photonic crystals. As of July [update] , several anomalous studies have announced negative refraction at single frequencies in the visible spectrum , [47] [48] [49] but the results of some of these demonstrations are considered ambiguous by later studies.

Besides reversed values for index of refraction , Veselago predicted the occurrence of reversed Cherenkov radiation also known simply as CR in a left-handed medium. In Pavel Cherenkov discovered a coherent radiation that occurs when certain types of media are bombarded by fast moving electron beams. In a theory built around CR stated that when charged particles, such as electrons, travel through a medium at speeds faster than the speed of light in the medium only then will CR radiate.

As the CR occurs, electromagnetic radiation is emitted in a cone shape, fanning out in the forward direction. CR and the theory has led to a large array of applications in high energy physics. A notable application are the Cherenkov counters. These are used to determine various properties of a charged particle such as its velocity, charge, direction of motion, and energy. These properties are important in the identification of different particles. It has been difficult to experimentally prove the reversed Cherenkov radiation. Theoretical work, along with numerical simulations , began in the early s on the abilities of DNG slabs for subwavelength focusing.

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Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications

The research began with Pendry's proposed " Perfect lens. One direction in subwavelength focusing proceeded with the use of negative-index metamaterials, but based on the enhancements for imaging with surface plasmons. In another direction researchers explored paraxial approximations of NIM slabs.

A change from a conventional refractive index to a negative value gives incorrect results for conventional calculations, because some properties and effects have been altered. The refractive index is basic to the science of optics. Shifting the refractive index to a negative value may be a cause to revisit or reconsider the interpretation of some norms , or basic laws. The first US patent granted for a fabricated metamaterial is U. Patent 6,, , titled "Left handed composite media.

The invention achieves simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability over a common band of frequencies.


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  • The material can integrate media which is already composite or continuous, but which will produce negative permittivity and permeability within the same spectrum of frequencies. Different types of continuous or composite may be deemed appropriate when combined for the desired effect. However, the inclusion of a periodic array of conducting elements is preferred. The array scatters electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths longer than the size of the element and lattice spacing.

    Metamaterial - Wikiwand

    The array is then viewed as an effective medium. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Metamaterial antenna. History of metamaterials Superlens Metamaterial cloaking Photonic metamaterials Metamaterial antenna Nonlinear metamaterials Photonic crystal Seismic metamaterials Split-ring resonator Acoustic metamaterials Metamaterial absorber Metamaterial Plasmonic metamaterials Terahertz metamaterials Tunable metamaterials Transformation optics Theories of cloaking. Bibcode : PhRvL..

    J Retrieved R; Shultz S. Bibcode : Sci Kluwer Academic. Engheta, N. Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations. Chapter 1. Applied Physics Letters.

    Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications
    Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications
    Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications
    Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications
    Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications
    Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications
    Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications
    Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications
    Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications

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