Diversity in teaching methods. A module may be free standing, or a building block to provide the means for grouping and re-grouping, insertion or deletion within a larger curriculum framework. The aim of introducing a module is to facilitate choice, flexibility and reducing labelling effects. There are many models for designing a modular curriculum. The following two are suggested for consideration:. The topics or domains of learning within a subject area are grouped under Core Modules and Elective Modules. Core modules consist of essential learning areas which are to be learned by all pupils.
Remedial and Extension modules cater for pupils with different learning abilities. Remedial modules refer to tailored materials on core modules to help weaker pupils to consolidate their learning. Extension modules are additional materials for more able pupils to deepen their understanding of the core modules. Elective modules broaden the content of the subject and provide options for the pupils with different interest and need. Some suggested elective modulars or thematic units in Social Studies are modules on adolescence, Hong Kong, China and the world.
A diagrammatic representation of the modular structure within a subject using Social Studies as an example is shown in Diagram 2 in Appendix 5. The advantages of adopting modularised curriculum for maladjusted pupils are :. The rationale behind curriculum integration is multi-functional.
Two are emphasized here:. Through close collaboration of teachers of various disciplines, rigid subject boundaries can be diminished, thus allowing the creation of authentic scenarios and purposeful activities. All these are conducive to long-term learning. The initial steps to integrate the school curriculum are:. The essential step is to design some real-life learning activities in which pupils can see the meaning and aims in learning.
The sense of purpose is mainly induced by the following two ways:. These pupil activities are often made interesting by involving multiple intelligences. The final steps often carried out in the subsequent couple of years , include arranging the above-mentioned activities to cover a large number of life long learning abilities which can be conveniently assessed. These abilities include information processing, higher-order thinking, communication, and collaboration, etc.
They can be conveniently assessed through shared responsibilities among subject teachers. The education of maladjusted pupils aims at providing knowledge, skills and support in personal growth. Affective and cognitive education are assumed to be interdependent. Subsequently, more adaptive and desirable behaviour would be developed. Thus, for maladjusted pupils, effective teaching should entail :. The commonly found learning difficulties presented by maladjusted pupils, their causes and strategies generally applied in remedial work are listed in Table 3.
Learning Difficulties Presented.
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Possible Causes. Lack of interest in schoolwork.
Reject school education. Lack of confidence. Cannot work independently. Do not dare to try anything new. E xplore non-academic potentials of pupils. Constant positive but realistic remarks and encouragement by teachers and other staff. Train pupils in effective study skills. Alternate difficult tasks with tasks in which pupils are competent.
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Not attentive,. Cannot stay long on any piece of work. Easily distracted. Not well developed in thinking and organisation skills. Disruptive in class. Following are some motivational strategies, both intrinsic and extrinsic, that are effective for general teaching in classroom. Maladjusted children are, in general, backward in academic achievement. However, there still exists a wide range of individual differences among pupils in a class. The following measures are suggested for effective teaching. Depending on the resources available, all pupils in the school or pupils of the same grade may be re-grouped according to their attainment in certain subjects.
So that the learning progress of the more able pupils may not be slowed down while learning interest of the less able pupils can be sustained because they are no longer frustrated by the unmanageable learning tasks as before. After delivering the required knowledge and skills for each lesson, pupils are divided into groups for activities. Ways of grouping may be done as follows:. A specifically designed individual learning programme for pupils of the two extremes in the class is needed to cater for their special needs.
Teachers should create a learning environment with appropriate teaching contents and activities for pupils so that their experience in learning is pleasurable. During the lesson, teachers should grasp every opportunity to make individual contact with pupils so that their individual differences can be taken care of. When teaching a mixed ability class, the teacher may try the following suggestions:. When designing tasks and worksheet for pupils, effects of learning may be maximized by the following measures :.
Each pupil is to be assessed on what he or she has been targeted to learn through formative assessment instead of norm referencing tests. This is a strategy to help pupils whose difficulties arise from lack of practice. When pupils are unable to understand fully the teaching content, teachers should find out the reasons behind and modify the teaching steps and strategies.
Re-teach the content to help pupils reaching the learning targets. Both teaching and learning are carried out mainly through activities. Teachers have to arrange activities carefully, which include games, competitions and role play. It is to induce active participation from pupils, improve their attitudes towards learning and enhance pupil-pupil and teacher-pupil relationship.
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Precision teaching can improve the effectiveness of learning. It is a behaviour oriented teaching strategy derived from task analysis. Through monitoring daily progress, the teacher comes to know if the teaching method adopted is effective. Precision teaching is a highly structured and systemic mode of teaching.
It stresses the following three principles :. Data will be used as indicator of the effectiveness in teaching and learning. Continuous assessment is emphasised. Four models of co-operative learning have been developed:. Studies have shown that co-operative learning enhance motivation and persistence in completing academic tasks. Peer tutoring is the systematic guidance to some junior class or academically less able pupils by teacher selected peers from senior classes or the better functioning and behaving pupils.
These young tutors are trained beforehand the basic principles of remedial work and their duties. Studies have indicated that peer tutoring is beneficial academically and non-academically to both the young tutors and the pupils under their guidance. Pupils being helped, besides showing progress academically, are improving in non-academic aspects such as attendance rate and discipline. To the young tutors, they are given the chance of leadership training and practice. Their confidence and sense of belonging to the school is enhanced at the same time. This approach can be implemented in groups or individually.
This includes contracting and monitoring the attendance so that both the young tutors and pupils being helped are working according to schedule. Strategies for Classroom Management. Good classroom management allows the pupils to get a clear picture of what is going on and what is expected of them, and the consistent consequences of their desirable and undesirable behaviour. Besides keeping class order, good classroom management help teachers conduct the lesson more effectively and know the classroom situations more accurately.
A competent and confident teacher image should then be presented. Be alert to what is happening in the class by walking around, using eye contact. Identifying where the trouble is going to start and to nip the trouble in the bud immediately by looks, gestures, proximity, touch or questions. On top of this, the teacher needs to establish a set of classroom rules for routine issues e. Make sure promises are kept. Failure to keep promises would induce resentment from pupils and damage the trusting relationship between teacher and pupils. The learning areas and experience may be delivered to pupils : -through class teaching or remedial work scheduled regularly in the time table -as regular interest groups scheduled mainly outside school hours -as self-contained programmes at suitable intervals, e.http://nttsystem.xsrv.jp/libraries/62/rafup-handy-hacken-moeglich.php
Stress Management Programme For Secondary School Students: A Practical Resource for Schools
Chinese, English and Putonghua Remedial programmes on languages Specially arranged language skills promotion projects and programmes Interest groups. Formal subject teaching and remedial programmes Projects in promoting Mathematics attainment Interest groups. Elements of science in General Studies Interest groups and projects Practical oriented purposeful activities Use of information technology and communication technology.
Replace norm referencing assessment with criterion referencing formative and summative assessment. Immediate compensation for what has not been fully grasped by pupils in learning.
Related Stress Management Programme For Secondary School Students: A Practical Resource for Schools
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